This is a doctoral project that needs constant editing. The first step will be to go through the document and proof read, edit grammar as needed, make in text citations, ext. I hand it into the teacher section by section. When I get it back it will have comments and corrections that need to be done. I will post her feedback and you will need to make those corrections. A7 and A9 are in the attachments with the feedback please correct . Thanks

This is a doctoral project that needs constant editing. The first step will be to go through the document and proof read, edit grammar as needed, make in text citations, ext. I hand it into the teache
Running Head: DEPRESSION AMONG MILLENIALS 0 ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION AMONG MILLENIALS Doctoral Project Presented to the Faculty School of Behavioral Sciences California Southern University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PSYCHOLOGY by Student Name Date of Defense Copyright Release Agreement Many Psy.D doctoral candidates decide to copyright their projects. This is a good idea if follow-up research is anticipated or if a truly innovative concept is developed in the project. The University retains the right to use Doctoral Projects for academic purposes such as displaying them in a library that is open for public review, making them available for review by other doctoral candidates of this institution, and providing copies for review by educational or professional licensing and accrediting agencies. In the event the doctoral candidate chooses to copyright the Doctoral Project; the University still retains its right to use the Doctoral Project for educational purposes as described. To document the doctoral candidate’s agreement with this condition, the doctoral candidate is to sign and date the following statement and return to the Committee Chair with a copy attached to the final version of the project submitted for the course. ________________________________________________________________________ To: School of Behavioral Sciences From: First & Last Name, Doctoral Candidate Subject: Copyright Agreement Release Date: August 2018 I, _____________________, Doctoral Candidate, do hereby grant California Southern University permission to use my Doctoral Project for educational purposes as described in this memorandum. _______________________________________ ____________ First & Last Name, Doctoral Candidate Date © 2018 Your Name Here California Southern University Approval We, the undersigned, certify we have read this Doctoral Project and approve it as adequate in scope and quality for the degree of Doctor of Psychology. Doctoral Candidate: Title of Doctoral Project: Doctoral Project Committee: (Type name and degree) Signed: ________________________________________________ Project Chair Date (Type name and degree) Signed: ________________________________________________ _________ Committee Member Date (Type name and degree) Signed: ________________________________________________ _________ Committee Member Date Gia Hamilton, Psy.D. Signed: ________________________________________________ _________ Dean, School of Behavioral Sciences Date ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABSTRACT The millenial generation today represents the majority of the population in the United States and around the world. There are several problems that this generation continues to experience and top of it all is various mental illnesses. The most common mental illness being experienced is depression. This is a significant concern for policy makers as well as psychology professionals. This study examines the problem of anxiety and depression among the millenial generation as well as steps that can be taken to deal with the problem. The study is qualitative and involves interviews with various millenials to determine their views and their situation. This study fills an important gap in the literature. Contents Chapter One: Overview of the Study 8 Background 9 Statement of The Problem 14 Purpose of The Study 16 Theoretical Framework 17 Significance of the Study 18 Limitations 18 Delimitation of study 19 Definition of Key Terms 21 Organization 21 Chapter Two: Literature Review 25 Leading Causes of Depression and Anxiety 25 Risk and Protective Factors 25 Internal Risk Factors for Depression 26 Environmental and Family Factors 28 Traumatic Events 29 Technology and Depression among Millenials 30 Introduction 30 Addiction to technology 31 Risk Factors 32 Millenials 34 Theoretical Framework 39 Summary 40 Chapter Three: METHODOLOGY 41 Introduction 41 Sample 44 Analysis 45 Limitations 46 Chapter Four: Results 48 Introduction 48 MILLENNIAL AS AN UNWANTED LABEL 49 Rejecting Imposed Definitions 51 Social Definition of Generations 55 Millennials as the Children of Modern Times 55 Technology 61 Education and Pressure to Succeed 64 Liberalness 66 67 Chapter Five: Discussion of Findings 68 References 71 Appendix 74 Chapter One: Overview of the Study 9 Background 10 Statement of The Problem 14 Purpose of The Study 16 Theoretical Framework 17 Significance of the Study 18 Limitations 18 Delimitation of study 19 Definition of Key Terms 20 Organization 20 Chapter Two: Literature Review 23 Leading Causes of Depression and Anxiety 23 Risk and Protective Factors 23 Internal Risk Factors for Depression 24 Environmental and Family Factors 25 Traumatic Events 26 Technology and Depression among Millenials 27 Introduction 27 Addiction to technology 28 Risk Factors 29 Millenials 31 Theoretical Framework 35 Summary 35 Chapter Three: METHODOLOGY 37 Introduction 37 Sample 39 Analysis 40 Limitations 41 Chapter Four: Results 42 Introduction 42 MILLENNIAL AS AN UNWANTED LABEL 42 Rejecting Imposed Definitions 44 Social Definition of Generations 47 Millennials as the Children of Modern Times 48 Technology 53 Education and Pressure to Succeed 55 Liberalness 57 Chapter Five: Discussion of Findings 59 References 61 Appendix 64 Chapter One: Overview of the Study The millennial generation is experiencing higher levels of suicide, anxiety, and depression compared to the baby boomers and generation X. There are several reasons that have been given in the past but none has been clearly definitive. New studies on various generations have shown that the millennial generation carries with it higher expectations for perfection and these elevated expectations have also been blamed for this pressure (Odenweller et. al, 2014). There is focus on individual empowerment in developed countries like the United States and Canada. The empowerment has been happening in the social and economic sphere (Ferri-Reed, 2013). Millenials are living up to high standards set by the previous generations. The individuals who are in these countries have been constantly working on themselves leading to higher educational levels and career attainment. These are the issues which seem to have cost the current millennial generation. The current millenials feel like they are overburdened with a streak of perfection which is something unknown to the parents and grandparents. Perfectionism can be described as a combination of high personal standards and extremely critical self-evaluations. It is this criticism that is said to be eating the millenials today. The perfectionism is not what is pressuring the millenials but it is today referred to as multidimensional perfectionism where the young adults feel the pressure to measure up to several sets of criteria. The desire to reach the impossible standards increases the anxiety, suicidal thoughts, depression, and eating disorders among this generation (Odenweller et. al, 2014). Background The cases of depression among the millenials and adolescents have skyrocketed in the last few years. the number of people diagnosed in the United States has gone up 33% from 2013 to 2017. The depression among millenials ages 18-34 has increased by around 47%. The statistics that are shown here indicated that there is a greater problem in the society. It is critical to look at the topic to understand why these conditions are increasing by the day. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that suicide is the second highest cause of deaths for millenials. This is a worrying trend and it is critical to investigate this issue. (Ferri-Reed, 2013). The rise of depression needs to be investigated because it will have a significant influence in the lives of this generation in the future. there seems to be a widespread despair among the young’s in the country today. Mental health is often described as being similar to an onion, there are several layers on top of one another that could be affecting the health of millenials. The millenials seem to have been affected by several issues such as bullying, abuse, neglect, and low self-esteem. The root cause of depression by some scholars among millenials has been identified as the lack of identity (Stein, 2013). The building of self-esteem and confidence have been identified as the areas of starting when it comes to solving the issue of depression. The depression statistics might seem shocking but it is important to consider the fact that there are also millions of other people who suffer in silence. Depression among the millenials has also been linked to several other health disorders. 80% of people with major depression are also diagnosed with one or more health disorders. The people who have depression are Laos more likely today to suffer from several other chronic illnesses. The depressed millenials are also more lily to engage in alcohol and substance abuse compared to the people who do not have such a diagnosis. The millenials suffering from depression, therefore, end up spending more on healthcare compared to other generations. The healthcare providers of today are forced to inquire about depression as a signal for other health conditions as a result of such observations. (Ferri-Reed,2013) The workplace is also an indicator of the mental health situation today. The millennial employees have also been reported to suffer from depression compared to every other generation that is represented in the workforce. The companies of today are being forced to priories their resources to mental health as today millenials are becoming the largest population of employees. 20% of employees in the workplace have reported that they experience depression compared to 16% of the baby boomers (Weinstein et. al, 2015). The opportunity for them in an area like employment is unique. They are the first generation to go into the workplace being highly educated but there is little job growth for them in the modern companies. The highest percentage of the millenials feel that they are too educated or are underemployed in their workstations. The millenials are reporting depression and anxiety in the workplace. The depression has affected their productivity while at work and at home. The companies are reporting a far worse off bottom-line as a result of this. There are several societal and generational factors that have been reported to lead to the rising cases of depression among millenials. One of the reasons is that the millenials were not given the much-needed skills to persevere through the hard times. They were not ready to go through times when there is little demand for labor and less disposable income. The lack of preparedness of life that tis seen among millenials can be associated with the lack of enough skills while in school. They are taught how to pass in tests and get good skills but there is little done to improve on their competence. It seems that the education for them was superficial and did little to build their confidence when they got to the workplace. The millenials have been suffering and pushing themselves to depression because they have high expectations which do not meet the realities of the present job market and life in general. Millenials are looking for more in life and want to have an impact as opposed to just a paycheck. The world today is harsh and glorifies the people who have paychecks. The millenials have different expectations to the rest of the generations in the world and this makes their existence difficult compared to the rest. Stigma is also not an issue when it comes to the millenials of today. They are open to talk about various challenges in life including the mental and the physical. There have been studies who associate the present increase in depression to the ability of millenials to have comfort in self-disclosure compared to the previous generations. The paradox of choice is one of the phenomena that millennials have to endure compared to the previous generations thus leading to high levels of depression. This is to mean that individuals have too many choices available to them yet too little time to make the right choice. This can create pressure to make the right choice even with the little information one may have at hand. The millennials always get trapped in trying to find the best choice and this cycle may trap them because every choice they make will have its consequences. (Odenweller, 2014). Whenever they experience any challenges in the choices they made, they may feel the need to blame their decision making abilities. Also, they may consistently feel the need to keep changing their choices at every instance of trouble and difficulty. In this case they may not experience the progress they desire and this may drive them to depression. Increased competition among the millennials and very few opportunities make it hard for millennials to cope and thus driving them to depression. In the previous generations, a degree meant that one was well read and qualified. However, in the recent generation of millennials, a college degree is almost equivalent to a high school qualification. Millennials have a hard time working between different schedules while taking different manual jobs just to earn an extra pay. This is depressing because the expectation was to get a white-collar job after college. Balancing the need to be independent and their parents’ chaperoning can be tiring. While it was easier to secure a job of one’s choice for the previous generations, it has become harder for the millennials. Millennials are growing up in the era of technology and social networks which have been attributed to several mental health problems including anxiety and depression. Social networks give access to whatever everyone else logged on is doing. Millennials are notorious for posing every little detail they’ve been up to on their social media pages such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. While this is entertaining, other millennials keep checking on what their friends have posted and make comparisons which lead to low self-esteem. They imagine that their counterparts having a good on social media never experience any bad moment. This will drive the millennial to self-loathing because they believe that they have not achieved their dreams. This constant comparison and always coming short is what leads to lack of self-esteem, drug use, among other vices to cope with the sadness. (Odenweller, 2014). Exposure to technology creates in the minds of the millennials unrealistic expectations based on the lives of their icon celebrities. Watching their favorite celebrities step out in designer outfits and cars make these millennials set standards for their desired lifestyles. This depresses the millennials when thing don’t work as they would desire in order to live big like their favorite celebrities (Steiner, 2013). Statement of The Problem The United States is dealing with a higher mental health deal because of several reported cases of depression. Depression has always been there but the levels today are unprecedented. One of the key generations experiencing depression are millenials. The depression among this generation has been linked to social isolation. The drive to achieve more and be successful and the failure to do so may lead one to isolate themselves from their social circles. Social isolation is linked to heavy drug use to fill in the void of loneliness. Millennials, due to unfulfilled dreams and ambitions may opt to recoil and ‘suffocate’ their brains with social media or movies (Stein, 2013). Lack of contact with family and friends enhances the feeling that one is alone in the misery. High suicide rates are witnessed among millennials compared to the previous generations. The high rates of suicide and the costs of treating depression are of interest to several stakeholders from government policy makers to psychology professionals. The government and other players in the health sector are burdened with an increased bill on mental health issues. The economy is dealing with a labor force that is quickly drained and worn out which ends up affecting productivity in the workplace. Employers today have to take into account the mental health of their workforce more than before. The societal pressure to succeed is seeing many millenials ignore their mental well-being. For most millennials, unlike previous generations, success isn’t just completing schools and getting a job then settling down and getting your favorite job. Millennials want more of everything to live their ideal lifestyle. Also, they want to work 100+ hours, sleeping 3-4 hours a night in order to seem successful (Odenweller et. al, 2014). Some study while working even for 8 hours just to get extra money. By the time they get home, they have no time to even self-reflect and review their day. Depression and anxiety are part of the lives of millenials who are the majority in many countries around the world. The depression and anxiety among millenials has been linked with the desire to do and achieve everything at the same time (Eagan, 2016). The need to control and the realization that thing always happen no matter what makes it hard to cope. The realization that several of these dreams cannot be achieved easily has been associated with rampant drug abuse and alcoholism as an escape mechanism (Odenweller et. al, 2014). Millenials constantly push themselves to achieve more ignoring their physical and mental well-being which can lead to burnout and sickness. It is critical to investigate why the millenials are depressed, what risk factors they have been exposed to, and what can be done to mitigate the issue. Purpose of The Study Mentioning ‘millennial’ has become synonymous to entitlement. The purpose of this study is to understand how entitlement among millennials has become very common and has become one of the drivers of depression. Entitlement among millennials is where they believe that the people they interact with intrinsically owe them something. It is very common in the work places and homes of the millennials. It is argued that this originates from the boomer and generation X parents that raised and spoiled them. Growing up, millennials are rewarded for participation and even coming in last just for the ‘effort’. Coming into the real world outside their homes, only excellence is rewarded. This may be very depressing since they may feel unappreciated at their workplaces and feel as though their efforts are futile. They always feel they are worth more than the salary given to them based on the fact that they are educated rather than the value they add to their employer. Dealing with this, millennials will often feel unappreciated and unwanted driving them to depression. They often face the world with very high expectations of how people should treat them and regard them. The world always falls short in this driving them to low self-esteem and depression. Instant gratification and low tolerance for frustration is a common phenomenon among millennials. Most millennials have a perfect plan for a post college life; get a job and thrive. Unlike previous generations, jobs are not as forth coming as they were before. There is a bigger gap between when one completes college and when they land their first job which may not be as high paying as they expected. In addition to that, millennials are delaying life steps; buying a house, getting kids and even a partner. Millennials want to reap benefits of the efforts they put in immediately and when that doesn’t happen, they are frustrated. Because of the expectations they had coming from schools and not being well equipped to deal with frustrations, millennials are likely to be frustrated and depressed in the end. There seems to be a wall existing and they lack the power to do anything about the matter. Hopelessness and sadness creeps in. Theoretical Framework Depression among millennials has become a very common topic all over the world. It is discussed in journals, TV talk shows and even in top newspaper articles. Every millennial goes through a period of self-doubt and has to critically question the direction of their lives. It may be smooth for some, but for others the process is scarring. 7 in every 10 millennials have dealt or are dealing with depression. This has made it easier to talk about the challenges among the social circles because there is less stigma and shame around it. Significance of the Study The significance of the study is to understand the growing trends of depression among millennials. What are the causes of these trends and what can be done to resolve this? Limitations There are several limitations that will be experienced when dealing with the study. The first one is that the sample size will be small because of the limited time and resources available. The profile of the sample will also be not ideal because of time and resources and the researcher will be forced to use a convenient sampling method. The other challenges that will be experienced in the study is the population dispersion as a result of the geographical limitations. An extensive profile might not be available. The age of data will also be challenging together with the timing of the study. Again, the measure in which I will use to collect data limits my ability to conduct exhaustive analysis and interpretation. Some of interviews will be conducted through the phone which might bring the issue of missed questions. This can be attributed to the manner the conversation is structured. The method of having open ended question and not very formal structure of asking the questions provides a loophole for missing some key details. This might affect the quality data given by the respondents in relation to the research question. The study may face some longitudinal effects because the research topic is broad and requires a lot of time. Since time is a scarce resource, time available to fully exhaust information on the research topic might be constrained. This may affect the quality of results from the data collected. Delimitation of study The limitations of the study will be dealt with using the appropriate methods of research.to eliminate the problems that are as a result of the limits of having a small sample size. The data collection process also needs to be efficient to meet the limitation of time involved to deal with all respondents. The research will be carefully arranged and organized in order to ensure that time is well spent. Planning ahead of the research and developing the most appropriate question will ensure that data collected is accurate, relevant and enough for the research question. This will allow interpretation of data to be simple and efficient. In trying to address the measure of collecting data, the study will have more participants interviewed via physical means. This will reduce the impact of collecting data via phone interviews and other online platforms which are not very efficient as compared to physical meeting. This will ensure that the interview is structured in a manner which reduces the chances of bias by the respondents. By utilizing data from respondents from different categories, it will ensure bias of the information will be minimized. Finally, this will be a qualitative research and hence the small number of sample size will not be a limiting factor. Definition of Key Terms Millennials are basically individuals that are reaching their adulthood in the 21st Century. They are also known as generation Y. Depression is the feeling of severe hopelessness and sadness. An individual suffering depression feels dejected and alone. Mental health is an individual’s condition as far as their health and psychological state is concerned. It is how well someone is doing emotionally and mentally. Social Isolation is when an individual has little or no contact with the society or other individuals. It is different from loneliness because loneliness is lack of contact with other humans. Organization This study has five chapters where the first chapter gives the background of the problem, gives the statement of the problem and provides the theoretical framework of the study. Also, in this chapter the key words used in the study are explained. The second chapter gives the literature review and the fourth chapter explains the methods used for research. Chapter five discusses the findings of the research carried out in chapter four. In chapter two of the research, there are several sections which deal with the specific literature in detail. The first chapter discusses the leading causes of anxiety and disorder. In realization that mental health is a broad topic, this section highlights some of the factors that cause depression and anxiety disorder. This section has subsections that have detailed information on the various factors. The first subsection deals with risk and protective factors. This subsection highlights the fact that there are risks which can influence the likeness of a person to get depression and anxiety disorder. Also, the subsection makes it clear that there are protective factors which can prevent a person from having depression and anxiety disorder. This sections goes ahead to classify the factors into various categories and explains each of them. The section highlights risk factors as internal, environmental & family, and traumatic factors. In internal risk factors, the paper discusses the personal traits which pre-disposes a person to depression and anxiety disorder. The section also discusses the some of the personal traits that can act as protective factors against the disorder. On the environmental and family factors, discuss the ability of environmental and family situations that can influence a young person in having the disorder. The paper states that young people do not have control of the family and environment factors and therefore it’s important for support structures to be in place. Also the paper discusses traumatic factors as one of the contributing factors to anxiety and depression disorder. The section discusses various traumatic events that could increase the chances of getting the disorder. The other section deals with technology and depression among millenials. It’s evident that millenials are the first generation to have been brought up in the age technological advances. Although technology has come with great things and made life simple, it has some draw backs. One of the draw backs of technology is addiction. This has addiction has been associated with depression among millenials. This puts the millenials in a unique position in relation to depression. The section deals with how technology have influenced depression among millenials in relation to addiction. Also, the section looks at the risks factors associated with the addiction. Although the risk factors are common to any person with access to internet, the section pays close attention to young people. This can be attributed to the rising number of young people reporting anxiety and depression disorder. The other section deals with concept of millenials. The section deals with the definition of millenials. This includes what the millenials themselves perceive their own identity. For a long time, there have been little information regarding millenials as compared to other generations. The section looks at the number of millenials as compared to other generations in the history. This section pays close attention to the issue of mental as related to millenials. The section utilizes academic articles which have been lately published as well as older article. The information is used to further discuss why the millenials seem to have mental health crisis. The chapter also contains theoretical framework. This section discusses the theory connected anxiety and depression disorder. There are some issue which have been concisely observed by various studies. This sections puts the issue of anxiety and depression disorder into a more clear and simple theoretical framework that can be understood by readers. Finally, the chapter concludes with a summary. This summarizes all the information discussed in the chapter. It combines the ideas and arguments put forward in throughout the entire chapter into concise statements. It also points out the gaps observed in literature concerning millenials and the issue of depression and anxiety Chapter Two: Literature Review Leading Causes of Depression and Anxiety Extensive research has been conducted on the topic of depression or anxiety but there are is no exact set of answers that fit all situations. Mental health issues are different for everyone. There are also diverse factors that affect the mental health of each individual. Risk and Protective Factors Young people are at the risk of developing depression and anxiety based on the things that they are at the risk of as well as protective factors. Every young person has a different childhood which affects the approach to various mental health issues. Every child growing up in a family or institution will go through various challenges that can be considered risk factors. Every child will have resources in their presence as well as strengths which will help them as they go through the difficult times. The resources and strengths which a child or young person will have growing up are what are considered the protective factors. There are generations who have more challenges compared to others. The higher the number of risk facts that a person is exposed to the higher the chances of development of various mental health conditions. Every individual goes through a set of risk factors in a different combination compared to the rest. The development of anxiety or depression will also be affected by the support that the individual gets from friends and family (Yen, 2009). Support helps the individual to build resilience and easily cope with the difficulties that they will go through in life. Researchers have identified several ways of dealing with the risk and protective factors. One of the ways of protecting the young person from depression and anxiety is by identification of the risk factors. Identification of the risk factors will be countered with ways of countering them in the long run. One can help a child from a young age against the risk factors by supporting them in development and resilience (Young, 2015). Several studies have also identified the promotion of the positive aspects of the lives of young people can mean challenges will less likely get in their way of happiness. Promotion of these positive aspects can help in leading a better life for the young people with success and good mental health. The risk and protective facts in the life of a young person can be classified into three main areas. The first one comprises of the factors that are within the individual. These include family history of mental health conditions, temperament, and natural abilities. The second set of factors can be classified are those in the family and living environment of the individual. These include poverty, discrimination, and relationships with the primary caregivers. The final set of factors refers to specific life events. These include loss, important transitions, loss and family breakup. Internal Risk Factors for Depression Studies have shown that their certain personality traits and temperaments which puts an individual at the risk of depression. The people who have low self-esteem, are perfectionists, and those who are flustered easily will most likely deve

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