Please respond to each discussion with a minimum of 150 words. You may get quotes and or ideas from the internet, but please put a work cited in apa style after each discussion. After you have completed the discussions, I am going to post two of my classmates response to each discussion and you will have to respond to each of their post with a minimum of 50 words. I will upload a summary of each chapter to better assist you with the discussion, but you may search the internet.

Part A Discussion Question: (150 word min)

What are the three levels of public law enforcement described in our readings? Identify two different law enforcement agencies, and compare and contrast the responsibilities of each. Why do you think that there are so many different types of law enforcement agencies? What is the relationship between private security and public policing in America today?

Part B Discussion Question:(150 word min)

Define arrest and describe how popular depictions of the arrest process may not be consistent with the legal understanding of the term.

What are the guidelines for using force, and for determining when excessive force has been used?

Part A Classmates Response: (respond to each post with a minimum of 50 words)

Student 1:

The three levels of public law enforcement are Federal, State, and local. The two agencies that I chose to compare are the federal bureau investigation and the U.S. Marshall. The Federal Bureau of investigation is known for counterintelligence and terrorism along with many other things. It is one of the oldest law enforcement agencies. U.S. Marshal is are for finding fugitives, serving warrants, and court security. They a director head both. The FBI has faculties within 50 countries. While the U.S. Marshall is more confined. They help each other a lot because for a high alarm investigation instead of sending out a police officer to serve the warrant they will send the U.S. Marshall.

Public policing is defined as ?government services provided at local, county, state, or federal level.? Meanwhile, private security is defined as ?law enforcement bodies that are owned or controlled by non-governmental entities.? They use private security for things such as the royal wedding, clubs, banks, and many other events that require the same protection that a police officer can give you. Either way, they both are to protect the public, and they both are trained to do just that. Even some police officers on there off days may take a second job doing private security.

Student 2:

This week assignments calls for us to describe the three levels of law enforcement which is Federal, State and Local. Federal include agencies such as : Secret Service, Federal Air Marshall, Homeland Security.

State includes : Highway Patrol, State Board for licensing such as: Nurses, Real Estate, Claim Handling/Insurance

local may include: Code Enforcement, Police, Sheriff all these departments play a role that interlinks for public safety & laws.

Because I have experience dealing with several of these Agencies ” Good & Bad” I will compare State vs Local. In the State of Georgia if you want to style, cut, color hair for a profit you must get licensed by the State Board of Cosmetology that will administer tests to ensure you understand and have obtained the required hours,concepts to protect the public from danger from chemicals and disease that are spread in “Public Establishments”. The State will issue you a license to perform those services to the public.

Once you are licensed by the State there will be a list of rules you must abide by. If those rules or regulations are not followed you can be fined or worst case have licensed suspended or revoked much like drivers or Doctors who commit offenses. The State have personal who travel from location of various of establishments to make sure these guidelines are being followed.

Local laws states you must have a business license if you want to operate or own a business that service the public. So you must look up laws in that county or city where you will perform your services. The regulate the actual business location and what the city says a certain area is deemed proper for operating such type of business.

Both agencies help protect the public in aspect to hair, but State regulates who and how services should be perform and local will dictate where and to what capacity the business may operate. let’s look at this example so you are licensed by the State to perform hair services, but you need somewhere to perform the services? You may have friend with a business that sells food or you may have a extra room in the house where you want to cut cost so you set up shop.

Even though you following the rules for doing hair, you may breaking a “code enforcement” as to where those services are performed? which may have an impact on the public? Do you remember the Waffle House incident where employees had dipped their head in a pot, that was used to make patrons food? The employees had boiled water to dip braids in, and this was pot used to serve patrons? Do you see how the two different entities help protect public. The Restaurant may be in area zoned for “Commercial Business” but State Board laws may require hair services may not be performed within so many feet o closed quarters away from food being served? Also there may be a fine or violation from Local health Board “contamination” ? So even though the business of selling food and dong hair was met- the laws was broken due to laws that govern hair & Food establishments were crossed.

That’s why we have many different forms of law enforcement agencies that “intertwine: with one another to protect Citizens at every cost. Checks and balances are in place for the good of everyone.

The common thread between private & public security is they are still serving and protecting interest for the greater good. Private firms where are employed by various industries are there to make sue the interest are not disrupted. They also help in areas where police may not be readily available. Ex: when you see Private security in High end Malls or Dept Stores to make the shopping experience safer/ cost effective for shoppers. If there was problem private security could help deter or be of assistance until Police arrive who have more authority legally to handle situation

Part B Classmate Response: (50 word min to each)

Student 1: An arrest is defined as the following from the textbook ?occurs whenever a law enforcement officer restricts a person?s freedom to leave.? What we have been exposed to from the media is different from the meaning of arrest. Often when we hear arrest on the news its followed by some type of police brutality. Which may make people believe that when they get arrest for a simple crime that they will be handled inappropriately, and this can make some people fearsome of police interaction whether the cause be light or heavy. Which really isn?t even the case because technically an arrest can simply be an officer and citizen having a conversation at which the officer just wants to talk and find the underlying cause of it.Police have guidelines that they have to follow and maintain. One of those guidelines is ?law enforcement officers are authorized to use only the amount of force that is reasonable and necessary giving the circumstances facing them.? Although there is a low statistic on the police force, there is also something called excessive force. Many people are not aware that there is a difference between the two. Excessive force can be defined as ?frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from willing or unwilling subject.? For example, they teach you certain techniques and pressure points to get you to comply if resisting arrest. But if the person is laying there still not moving and doing everything you want them to do and you start to break their arm that is considered excessive force and could easily start to fall up under deadly force.

Student 2:

The definition of an arrest in our textbook is much different than how it is depicted on TV.Schmalleger defines it merely as ?whenever a law enforcement officer restricts a person?s freedom to leave? (2013).This is far less dramatic than what we see on Law and Order!Crime shows, both reality, and dramas that are made for TV involve tricky questioning techniques, an ?aha? moment, and then they force their hands behind their backs while slapping them in handcuffs and start with, ?You are under arrest, you have the right to remain silent?? In actuality, it is apparently much less exciting.I assumed people had to be Mirandized as soon as they were arrested; however, I have learned that is not the case.A person only has to be given the Miranda warning if they are going to be interrogated by the police once in custody; so, if they confess to the crime before they have been questioned and Mirandized, the confession is admissible (Miranda Warning, 2018).You learn something new every day, because I thought anything that was said before a Miranda warning was given had to be thrown out.

The guidelines for using force according to the Department of Justice is that police officers are allowed to use force only to the extent that is reasonable and needed to handle the situation (Schmalleger, 2013).It was interesting to read that force includes restraining, hitting, choking, using a police dog, and threatening with a baton, pepper spray, or a gun; yet not all consider handcuffing (2013 p. 252).

Explanations regarding excessive force were somewhat confusing.There is a difference between excessive force and excessive use of force. Excessive force appears to mean more physical force than is needed for a situation; like pushing a suspect to the ground when a hand on their shoulder to turn them around and put them in cuffs would suffice. Excessive use of force is when a whole department uses force in an unacceptable manner, as a general rule (2013, p.253). How they determine when excessive force has been used was just as confusing for me to understand.I?m going to use a direct quote here because I don?t want to make this any more complicated. ?The force factor is calculated by measuring the suspect?s level of resistance and the officer?s level of force on an equivalent scale and then subtract the level of resistance from the level of police force used? (2013, p.253).The problem with this equation is that the police are having to make split-second, life or death decisions in the heat of the moment and they may not have time to weigh this all out.Tough calls.

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