Complete a 3-page single space case study on the material in the attached fairfox case study document below. The 3 pages does not include the cover page or reference page! CITE ALL REFERENCES IN APA FORMAT! Thoroughly answer all of the questions in the fairfox case study document.  I have also attached Arsenic, Chromium, Copper, and CCA fact sheets to aid in thoroughly answering the questions.

Complete a 3-page single space case study on the material in the attached fairfox case study document below. The 3 pages does not include the cover page or reference page! CITE ALL REFERENCES IN APA F
Environmental Toxicology The above map illustrates a wood treater’s site which used copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA) as a pressure-treated process for utility poles, pilings, heavy timber and plywood from 1980 to 2010. The CCA dripped on the ground during the drying process. The plant is close to two schools and is in the middle of a residential neighborhood of primarily African Americans. You are asked to develop a plan to do a risk assessment and to evaluate the site. Please answer the questions below. Use the risk assessment framework and the provided fact sheets. We are concerned with the workers and the resident’s exposure to CCA through the air, runoff of soil to a creek and low lying areas and the schools. How would you set up a survey for the workers and the residents? The occupational workers have reported diverting contaminated water to near-by school grounds and ponds. What could you do to document their concerns for contaminating the area and their exposures while working at the plant? What are the preceptors ((e.g. workers, children, residents) and what are the likely exposure routes for each group. Consider environmental testing of gardens, water and soil? Could you do biomonitoring on preceptors? The CCA is a carcinogen and also the components have acute effects. Please use the fact sheets to draw a dose/response curve for both. Give me a diagram on how you might set up risk communication and training with the workers, residents and schools. You may use your notes, book and the internet to address the questions above but please use a common sense approach.
Complete a 3-page single space case study on the material in the attached fairfox case study document below. The 3 pages does not include the cover page or reference page! CITE ALL REFERENCES IN APA F
Arsenic Fact Sheet What is arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust. When arsenic combines with other chemical elements such as oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur in the environment it forms inorganic arsenic. In animals and plants organic arsenic is formed when arsenic combines with carbon and hydrogen. The inorganic form of arsenic is used to preserve wood. Copper chromated arsenate is used to make pressure-treated lumber. Although CCA use has been discontinued in residential areas in the U.S; factories and industries still use it in some industrial activities. The organic form of arsenic is used in pesticides, mainly on cotton farms and orchards. Where does the arsenic released into the environment go? When arsenic is released into the environment from soils that naturally contain this substance, some may enter the air, water, and soil from wind-blown dust. Arsenic is very stable in the environment and cannot be destroyed. Dust particles from the air containing arsenic maybe moved by rain. The ability of arsenic to dissolve in water causes most forms of arsenic to end up in soil and sediment. Fish and shellfish can store arsenic. Most of this arsenic is in an organic form called arsenobetaine which is much less harmful. Am I at risk of being exposed to arsenic? You may be exposed to arsenic if you eat or swallow small amounts present in food, or water or if you breathe air containing arsenic. You may be exposed to arsenic if you breathe sawdust or smoke from burning wood treated with arsenic. You may be exposed to arsenic if you live in areas with high natural levels of arsenic in rock. Your type of job may also increase your likelihood, jobs that involve arsenic production use such as copper or lead smelting, wood treating or pesticide application increase your chances of being in contact in arsenic. How Can Arsenic affect my health? Skin contact with inorganic arsenic may cause redness and swelling. Breathing high levels of inorganic arsenic can lead to sore throat or irritated lungs. Eating or swallowing high levels of arsenic can result in death while lower levels can cause nausea and vomiting, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart beat, damage to blood vessels and a feeling of “pins and needles” in hands and feet. Continuous swallowing or breathing of low levels of inorganic arsenic for a long time can cause the skin to be darkened and the appearance of small “corns” or “warts” on the palms, underside of the foot and torso. The health effects of organic arsenic compounds are not well known, however eating organic forms of arsenic can cause diarrhea and damage to the kidneys. Can arsenic cause cancer? Several studies have shown that consumption of inorganic arsenic can increase the chance of skin cancer and cancer in the liver, bladder, and lungs. Breathing inorganic arsenic dust can cause increased chance of lung cancer. How can arsenic affect children? There is some evidence that long-term exposure to arsenic in children may result in lower IQ scores. There is also some evidence that exposure to arsenic in the womb and early childhood may increase mortality in young adults. There is some evidence that inhaled or ingested arsenic can injure pregnant women or their unborn babies, although the studies are not definitive. Studies in animals show that large doses of arsenic that cause illness in pregnant females, can also cause low birth weight, fetal malformations, and even fetal death. Arsenic can cross the placenta and has been found in fetal tissues. Arsenic is found at low levels in breast milk. How can families reduce the risks of contacting arsenic? Ensure they wear dust masks, gloves, and protective clothing when using arsenic-treated wood in home projects to decrease exposure to sawdust Families that live in an area with high levels of arsenic in their water (not the case at the Fairfax Street Wood treating site) or soil should use cleaner sources of water and avoid contact with soil. Members of the family that have jobs where they may encounter arsenic should ensure they shower and change their clothes before going home. Is there a medical test to determine whether I’ve been exposed to arsenic? There are tests available to measure arsenic in your blood, urine, hair, and fingernails. The urine test is the most reliable test for arsenic exposure within the last few days. Tests on hair and fingernails can measure exposure to high levels of arsenic over the past 6-12 months. These tests can determine if you have been exposed to above-average levels of arsenic. They cannot predict whether the arsenic levels in your body will affect your health. Federal Government Regulations to protect human health The EPA has set limits on the amount of arsenic that industrial sources can release to the environment and has restricted or cancelled many of the uses of arsenic in pesticides. EPA has set a limit of 0.01 parts per million (ppm) for arsenic in drinking water. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 10 micrograms of arsenic per cubic meter of workplace air (10 µg/m3) for 8 hour shifts and 40-hour work weeks. References: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2007. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic (Update, 2012). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service.
Complete a 3-page single space case study on the material in the attached fairfox case study document below. The 3 pages does not include the cover page or reference page! CITE ALL REFERENCES IN APA F
Chromium Fact Sheet What is chromium? Chromium is a chemical element that occurs naturally in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exist in more than one forms. Depending on the form it takes, it can be a liquid, solid, or gas. The most common forms are chromium (0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). Chromium compounds do not have an odor or taste. The metal chromium, which is the chromium (0) form, is used for making steel. Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Where does the chromium released into the environment go? Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, and disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process. Chromium does not usually remain in the air; therefore, it finds its way into the soil and water. Chromium can easily change from one form to another in water and soil, depending on the conditions present. Fish do not store much chromium in their bodies from water. How can I be exposed to chromium? Tests did not find the toxic form of chromium, chromium (VI), above screening levels in yards. Screening levels used to judge test results are set much less than other health risk levels. Test results higher than their screening levels are evaluated further. People can be exposed to chromium By eating food containing chromium (III) By breathing workplace air containing chromium or through skin contact during use in the workplace By drinking well water that has been contaminated By living near uncontrolled waste sites containing chromium or industries that use chromium How can chromium affect my health? Chromium (III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body to use sugar, protein and fat. Breathing high levels of chromium (VI) can cause irritation to the lining of the nose, nose ulcers, runny nose, and breathing problems such as asthma, cough, shortness of breath or wheezing. The levels of chromium in air that can cause these effects may be different for different types of chromium compounds, with health effects occurring at much lower levels for chromium (VI) compared to chromium (III). Animals can suffer from irritation and ulcers in the stomach and small intestine after eating chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (III) is less poisonous and does not cause these problems. Laboratory animals exposed to chromium (VI) showed signs of sperm damage and damage to the male reproductive system. Skin contact with some chromium (VI) compounds can cause skin ulcers. People sensitive to chromium(VI) or chromium (III) can suffer allergic reactions consisting of severe redness and swelling of the skin. Can chromium cause cancer? The Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that chromium(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. In workers, inhalation of chromium(VI) has been shown to cause lung cancer. Chromium(VI) inhalation also causes lung cancer in animals. Although an increase in stomach tumors was observed in humans and animals exposed to chromium(VI) in drinking water, EPA has not determined a cancer slope factor for ingestion of chromium (VI), so scientists are unable to calculate cancer risks for ingestion exposures. What is the effect of chromium on children? The health effects seen in children will be like the effects seen in adults particularly in children who have been exposed to high amounts of chromium. There is not enough information to determine if chromium will cause developmental effects in people; however, some developmental effects have been observed in animals. How can families reduce the risk of exposure to chromium? Children should avoid playing in soils near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites where chromium may have been discarded. Chromium is a component of tobacco smoke. Avoid smoking in enclosed spaces like inside the home or car to limit exposure to children and other family members. Although chromium(III) is an essential nutrient, you should avoid excessive use of dietary supplements containing chromium. What medical test can be used to determine if I’ve been exposed to chromium? Higher than normal levels of chromium in blood or urine may be a sign that you have been exposed to chromium. However, increases in blood and urine chromium levels cannot be used to determine health effects. Chromium (III) is an essential which occurs naturally in food hence some levels will always be found in the body. Are there federal government recommendations made to protect human health? The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level of 0.1 mg/L for total chromium in drinking water. The FDA has determined that the chromium concentration in bottled drinking water should not exceed 0.1 mg/L. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) has limited workers’ exposures to an average of 0.005 mg/m chromium(VI), 0.5 mg/m chromium(III), and 1.0 mg/m chromium (0) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. Reference: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2012. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Complete a 3-page single space case study on the material in the attached fairfox case study document below. The 3 pages does not include the cover page or reference page! CITE ALL REFERENCES IN APA F
CCA-Treated Wood Fact Sheet What Is CCA? Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a water-soluble inorganic pesticide most commonly used to protect wood and make it resistant to attack by termites and fungi that cause decay. The wood is dipped in a solution of CCA and subjected to vacuum pressure to force penetration of CCA into the wood. CCA-treated wood is also referred to as pressure-treated wood and is known by the trade name Wolmanized. Wood treated with CCA was widely used in outdoor structures such as decks, playground equipment, picnic tables, garden-bed borders and docks before 2003. However, wood treated with CCA can still be used for commercial, industrial and some agricultural purposes. Where does the CCA on the Pressure-Treated Wood Surface go? Newly CCA-treated wood may have some pesticide residue left on the wood surface from the treatment process. Because CCA is water-soluble, rainwater can seep in and leach CCA onto the wood surface. Cracking of the wood as it ages speeds up the leaching process. The CCA residue can be wiped or dislodged from the wood surface and can stick to hands or clothing from contact with the wood surface. Since CCA can be leached from CCA-treated wood by rainwater and CCA-Treated Wood weathering, the soil beneath and adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures has been shown to be contaminated by arsenic, chromium, and copper. When decks built with CCA-treated wood were coated with a waterproof sealant the soil underneath had lower concentrations of the metals. Concern About Children’s Exposure Young children are more at risk of exposure to CCA because they tend to spend more time playing outdoors, and because they have frequent hand-to-mouth activities. When playing on playground equipment or decks built with CCA-treated wood, they can be exposed to CCA by touching the CCA leachate on the wood surface with their hands and then involuntarily ingest the CCA on their hands by hand-to-mouth activity. The amount of CCA leached on the surface of the wood depends upon the type of wood and the age of the structure. The amount ingested is also dependent upon how frequent the child puts their hand in his/her mouth. Children may also be exposed to CCA in contaminated soil when playing under these structures by touching the contaminated soil with their hands and then placing them in their mouths. Greatest Health Risk from CCA Exposure to Arsenic Dissolved liquid from CCA contains arsenic, chromium, and copper. Available information suggests that exposure to the arsenic in CCA-treated wood poses the greatest potential health risk. However, there is great uncertainty regarding the exposure dose that results from contact with CCA-treated wood. Potential health effects that may result from contact with wood treated with CCA are irritant or corrosive effect on the respiratory tract, irritation of the skin, digestive tract and eyes, cancer. While some of the effects are solely because of arsenic exposure, some health effects may occur due to the presence of other components of CCA. How to Prevent Exposure to CCA The following measures can prevent or reduce exposure to CCA: ? When working with CCA-treated wood, wear dust masks, gloves, and protective clothing to decrease exposure to sawdust (ATSDR 2007). ? Apply a sealant every one to two years to CCA-treated wood structures to reduce direct contact with the wood preservative (CDPH 2007; CPSC 2006). ? Do not allow children to play under CCA-treated wood decks, and encourage them to wash up after playing on decks or playground equipment. ? Use alternative building materials, such as plastics and hardwood, for outdoor structures (EPA 2008). ? Cover CCA-treated wood used for garden-bed borders with heavy plastic Safe Handling and Disposal Safe Handling and Disposal ? Retail stores that sell CCA-treated wood should have copies of the consumer information sheet that describes safe handling recommendations. ? CCA-treated wood may be disposed of as ordinary household trash, but do not burn CCA-treated wood because toxic chemicals would be released into the air or remain in the ashes (EPA 2008). ? Do not use CCA-treated wood as mulch or wood chips. Do not put sawdust from CCA-treated wood in the composting pile. References: ATSDR. 2007. Toxicological profile for arsenic (and 2012 update). Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. CDPH. 2007. Pesticides used in pressure-treated wood. Hartford: Connecticut Department of Public Health. CPSC. 2006. Evaluation of the effectiveness of surface coatings in reducing dislodge able arsenic from new wood pressure-treated with chromate copper arsenate (CCA). Draft Final Report. Consumer Product Safety Commission. EPA. 2008. Chromated copper arsenicals (CCA). Chou S., Colman J., Tylenda C., & De Rosa C. (2007). Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: Port of Djibouti. Toxicology and Industrial Health; 23: 183–208

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