Disease report on Malaria in India

Disease report on Malaria in India
Background and local perspective Background: The disease chosen for this paper is Malaria and the area chosen is India. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malaria, and Plasmodium ovale are the parasites that cause malaria, which can be potentially fatal. These parasites are spread through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. (WHO, 2022). In India, malaria is still a significant public health issue. The nation is responsible for 2% of all malaria cases, 2% of all malaria deaths (outside of sub-Saharan Africa), and 85.2% of all malaria cases in Southeast Asia. (Severe Malaria, “n.d.). When a female Anopheles mosquito bites someone with malaria, it spreads the disease. Additionally, the use of contaminated (dirty) needles or syringes as well as blood transfusion from infected individuals can spread malaria. When a mosquito bites a person who has malaria, the mosquito may spread the infection to other people. By biting and transmitting the disease to healthy humans, these infected mosquitoes might spread it farther. There is no direct transmission of malaria from one person to another. (Department of Health, 2017). Malaria preys on the weak, including children under five, the most impoverished and marginalized people, pregnant women, and their unborn offspring. Malaria during pregnancy is thought to have killed at least 10,000 women and 200,000 newborns under the age of one, considerably contributing to the mortality of mothers and early children. (UNICEF, 2018). As well as travelers or migrants lacking immunity who come from regions where malaria prevalence is minimal or nonexistent. (CDC, 2021). India’s central and eastern regions, particularly the eastern states of Orissa, West Bengal, and Jharkhand, the central states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh, and the western states of Gujarat, Karnataka, and Rajasthan, report the highest rates of malaria cases and deaths. Orissa has the highest number of malaria deaths reported. (Das et al., 2012). The vast terrain and varied climate of India provide the optimum conditions for the survival of malaria parasites and their vectors. The country’s climate ranges from moderate in the north to tropical monsoon in the south. In India, malaria can manifest in a variety of ways, including forest/tribal, urban/slum, industrial, and plains malaria. This is due to the climatic variability that affects the distribution of malaria parasite species and vectors. (Das et al., 2012). Temperature, humidity, rainfall, soil quality, elevation/slope, land cover, hydrography, the existence of natural enemies of mosquitoes and larvae, and natural catastrophes are all factors that affect the ecological component. (Castro, 2017). Temperature has an impact on the development of the parasite and the vector and is a significant barrier to malaria’s global spread. Precipitation intensity, duration, and frequency all play a part in creating the ideal aquatic environments for mosquito breeding. The most severe effects on human health are frequently caused by extreme weather events, such as typhoons, hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, and tropical storms. (Castro, 2017). The presence of malaria was also strongly correlated with lower income, dwelling type, distance to the health sub-center, knowledge and awareness of malaria, number of mosquito bites per day, and use of bed nets. Important sociodemographic risk factors for malaria transmission and epidemic include ethnic groups, parental education and occupation levels, use of personal protective equipment, and family living conditions. (Yadav et al., 2014). Cultural factors such as level of education, knowledge, beliefs on a community, gender, income, housing, etc. plays an important role as well. Abiotic factors such as lower income, dwelling type, distance to the health sub-center, knowledge and awareness of malaria, and use of bed nets, temperature, humidity, rain fall etc. (Yadav et al., 2014). Biotic factors such as, human beings, natural environment and human made environment, vector diversity as well as, patterns of malaria transmission include agricultural growth, population changes, and urbanization. are also strongly related to malaria. (Oaks, 1991). Local Perspective: Public and private health care service providers are both a part of India’s mixed health care system. Most private healthcare organizations, which offer secondary and tertiary care services, are centered in urban areas of India. Based on population norms, the public health-care infrastructure in rural areas has been established as a three-tier system (Sub centers, Primary health centers, community health centers and first referral units). (Chokshi et al., 2016). Six acknowledged medical systems are practiced in India, including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Yoga, Naturopathy, and Homoeopathy. In addition to these systems, there are numerous healers in the folklore stream who are not classified in any way. (Ravishankar &Shukla, 2007). Two types of medicine are used in India. On the one hand, there are nearly 600,000 doctors of Indian medicine with degrees recognized by the government. On the other hand, there are between one and two million local herbalists. Folk healers are a highly diverse group of people. They include experts in a variety of common and chronic illnesses, such as those who treat jaundice, snake bites, setting broken bones, midwives, etc. Gram Vaidya’s, or village healers, are typically fully integrated into their communities, and for most of them, healing is a part-time profession. (Bode & HariraMaMurthi, 2014). In India, the utilization of traditional and AYUSH medical systems is higher in the tribal population, in particular geographical locations (states), among patients with chronic illnesses, and for the treatment of musculoskeletal and skin-related conditions. (Pengid & Peltzer, 2021). Lack of access to high-quality biomedical treatments is undoubtedly a contributing factor. In rural locations, it is common for biomedical facilities to be out of reach or, if they are, to be of poor quality or unaffordable quality. According to statistics, half of India’s population lacks access to life-saving medications, and many suffer from financial difficulties because of illness. When individuals are pressured to submit to meaningless biomedical testing and purchase pointless biomedical medications, they are being monetarily exploited. When conventional treatments fail, they seek out specialists for biomedical treatment. They unexpectedly went back to the traditional healers if the biomedical treatment did not help them. (Bode & HariraMaMurthi, 2014). A traditional healer described his method for treating malaria: “First, we pour cold water on the sick person’s head to lower their body temperature. The patient is then given the herbal remedy. Our term for malaria fever is “pieta fever,” and it causes the spleen to grow. To treat this, we give patients an herbal remedy called “Patteri Kudi,” which they apply to their necks. Additionally, the patient receives a paste produced from plant leaves for treatment. (Vijayakumar et al., 2009). Malaria can be prevented by sleeping under a mosquito net, drinking boiling water, maintaining a clean environment, and applying lotions for insect bite prevention. Traditional practices including building a bonfire for smoke, covering one’s body with clothing, and applying natural oils to repel mosquitoes were also well known. (Vijayakumar et al., 2009). Reference: Bode, M., & HariraMaMurtHi, G. (2014). Integrating folk healers in India’s public health: acceptance, legitimacy, and emancipation. EJournal of Indian Medicine, 7.  Castro, M. C. (2017, October 3). Malaria transmission and prospects for malaria eradication: The role of the environment. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629986/  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, December 16). CDC – Malaria – malaria worldwide – impact of malaria. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/impact.html  Chokshi, M., Patil, B., Khanna, R., Neogi, S. B., Sharma, J., Paul, V. K., & Zodpey, S. (2016, December). Health Systems in India. Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5144115/  Das, A., Anvikar, A. R., Cator, L. J., Dhiman, R. C., Eapen, A., Mishra, N., Nagpal, B. N., Nanda, N., Raghavendra, K., Read, A. F., Sharma, S. K., Singh, O. P., Singh, V., Sinnis, P., Srivastava, H. C., Sullivan, S. A., Sutton, P. L., Thomas, M. B., Carlton, J. M., & Valecha, N. (2012, March). Malaria in India: The center for the study of complex malaria in India. Acta tropica. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294179/  Department of Health. Malaria Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/malaria/fact_sheet.htm  India. Severe Malaria Observatory. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.severemalaria.org/countries/india-0  Oaks, S. C. (1991). Malaria: Obstacles and opportunities. Nat. Acad. Pr.  Pengpid, S., & Peltzer, K. (2021, October 15). Utilization of complementary and traditional medicine practitioners among middle-aged and older adults in India: Results of a national survey in 2017-2018. BMC complementary medicine and therapies. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518220/  Ravishankar, B., & Shukla, V. J. (2007, February 16). Indian systems of Medicine: A Brief Profile. African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816487/  Ten things you didn’t know about malaria. UNICEF. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/ten-things-you-didnt-know-about-malaria  Vijayakumar, K. N., Gunasekaran, K., Sahu, S. S., & Jambulingam, P. (2009, July 22). Knowledge, attitude, and practice on malaria: A study in a Tribal Belt of Orissa State, India with reference to use of long-lasting treated mosquito nets. Acta Tropica. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001706X09001910  World Health Organization. (n.d.). Malaria. World Health Organization. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.who.int/india/health-topics/malaria  Yadav, K., Dhiman, S., Rabha, B., Saikia, P. K., & Veer, V. (2014, June 24). Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, india – infectious diseases of poverty. BioMed Central. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2049-9957-3-19 

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