It is a  course of mental illness related to sociology.Please read the attached files and watch the video (link below) to understand the task properly. Its one page writing with any of the following–> a TikTok vedio, advertisement, media post related to mental health.

Must watch-

Please complete 2 separate sanism (which means two separate writing with two separate attachment)

Depictions of sanism, share the media (photo,tweet, link, screenshot, etc.), and provide a 1-page summary discussing how sanism is identifiedin your media choice and how it is being rendered invisible

Sanism and language of mental illness-

Please make sure it’s plagiarism free

It is a course of mental illness related to sociology.Please read the attached files and watch the video (link below) to understand the task properly. Its one page writing with any of the following–
LABELING AND STIGMASeptember 26 & 28 Everyday Sanism•-isms are a fundamental topic for critical scrutiny in sociology•classism, heterosexism, ethnocentrism, ableism, racism, sexism/genderism, and ageism•understandingthe ways in which normative practices and beliefs function to oppress and discriminate those on the periphery•Sanismisasystem,orwaythatmakesitokayforsocietytoother(pickon,makefunof,discriminate,reject,silence)people with mental health disorders•The –isms are similar in that they can be stereotypes (how we think), prejudice (how we feel) and discrimination (how we act) towards others Instagram Tw i t t e r Tik Tok Novelty Shops Sociological Imagination•C. Wright Mills•“Thesociologicalimagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society that is its task and its promise”•Private Troubles Social Problems SanismAssignment•Who created this text/media and why?•What is being presented in the material/text?•What argument does it make?•What kinds of images are used and why?•How is the main subject (situation, person, policy etc.) being constructed/presented? &/orWhat is the main concern, issue, tensions and how is it presented?•Whose point of views presented? challenged? How is it being told?•How do sociological concepts such as (social norms, power, values, groups, beliefs, gender, race, orientation, etc.) help to understand how audiences may ‘read’/understand the material/subject?•What/how are assumed truths/ assumptions/ take for granted wisdom contested (orenacted) in the text/media (by who? & What is response) Who experiences mental illness?1,2•In anygivenyear,1in7 Canadians experiencesamentalillness•1 in3Canadians will be affected by mental illness in their lifetime•Everyyear,1in7peopleusehealthservicesformentalillness•Canadianfemales are 30% more likely than males to use health services for mental illness•Young people aged 15 to 24 are more likely to experience mental illness and/or substance use disorders than any other age group•Men have higher rates of substance use disorders than women, while women have higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders•Canadians in the lowest income group are 3 to 4 times more likely than those in the highest income group to report poor to fair mental health•Studies in various Canadian cities have indicated that between 23% and 67% of homeless people may have a mental illness ‘Sick Role’3Temporary social role that individuals take when they become illPatter n of behaviourthat people must do as part of the “responsibility” of being sick•The sickpersonisexemptfromnormalsocialroles•The sick person is not responsible for their condition•The sickpersonisobligatedtogetwell•The sick person is obligated to seek technically competent help Criticisms•Focus on acute illness rather than chronic illness•Limited toselectphysical conditions, ignoring psychosocial conditions•Medico-centric with a professional bias against self-care•Decontextualized, failing to consider the influence of aspects of social location (culture, class, gender) Labeling ourselves and others as ‘ill’4Break the rules (primary deviance)Labeled as deviantAdopt the role of “deviant”Conform to the label (secondary deviance)•Thomas Szasz (1960) –”The myth of mental illness”•Howwelabelpeoplematters•LabelingTheory(ThomasScheff, 1 9 6 6 )•If a person breaks norms (cognitive, performance, feeling) they’re labeled as mentally ill (i.e., diagnosed). They then begin to act in accordance tothat label Labeling ourselves and others as ‘ill’5Labeled and social meanings of label become relevant to selfResponse: SecrecyWithdrawalEducationNegative consequences for self-esteem, earnings, social tiesVu l n e r a b l e t o new disorder or repeat episodes of existing disorder•What does thereactiontothelabellooklike?Whataretheconsequences?•Modified labeling theory (Link et al., 1989)•Key:beliefsaboutdevaluationanddiscrimination Stigma5•Erving Goffman, 1963•Stigma is “an attribute that is deeply discrediting” that reduces someon“from a whole and usual person to a tainted; discounted one”-Abominations of the body (i.e., deformities)-Blemishes of individual character (as inferred from mental illness, addiction, unemployment…)-“Tribal” identities (race, sex, religion, nationality)•Updated: Stigma exists when a person is labeled and thus linked to negative stereotypes; categorized as ”them”; and experience status loss, discrimination, and unequal outcomes (Link & Phelan, 2001, 2013) Do we see stigma toward Mental Disorder?•In some ways, the public has become more accepting•More willing to report having a mental disorder•More likely to approach others and utilize informal support to cope with mental disordersAnd yet…•Newspapers articles on mental disorder mention violence, criminals, use theme of fear •We don’t want to associate with people with mental disorders Experiences of Stigma6•In a 2019 survey of working Canadians•75%ofrespondentssaidtheywouldbereluctant(48%)–orwouldrefuse (27%) -to disclose a mental illness to an employer or co-worker•Respondentswerenearly3timeslesslikely to want to disclose a mental illness like depression than a physical one like cancer•To preasonsforthisreluctance were:The beliefthatthereisstigmaaroundmentalillnessNot wantingtobetreateddifferentlyorjudged,andBeing afraid of negative consequences, such as losing your job•However,76%ofrespondents stated that they themselves would be completely comfortable with and supportive of a colleague with mental illness Public Perceptions of Stigma7 What does stigmamean?•Negative judgement•Judgement based on one aspect of a person’s life•Long-lastinglabels•Disgrace•Embarrassment andshame•Something you are not proud of and what to hide•Being treated differently from the rest of societyHow does stigma affect people?•Violation ofhumanrights(e.g.,beingtreatedwithlessconsideration and respect when seeking medical care and housing)•Lackofemployment(losingjobsanddifficulty getting jobs)•Negative feelingsaboutthemselves(internalizing negative beliefs of others)•Avoiding services (e.g., disrespectful treatment)•Continuing substance use (to cope with other people’s negative attitudes and their own feelings) Things to reduce stigma71.Know the facts.Educate yourselfabout mental illness including substance use disorders.2.Be aware of your attitudes and behaviour. Examine your own judgmental thinking, reinforced by upbringing and society.3.Choose your words carefully. The way we speak can affect the attitudes of others.4.Educate others.Pass on f actsand positive attitudes; challenge myths and stereotypes.5.Focus on the positive. Mental illness, including addictions, are only part of anyone’s larger picture.6.Support people. Treat everyone with dignity and respect; offer support and encouragement.7.Include everyone. It’s against the law to deny jobs or services to anyone with these health issues. Reactions to StigmaElephant in the Room: Mood Disorders Society of CanadaBring Change to Mind: nonprofit started by Glenn Close ´Aggressive, ever-increasing sales targets in call centres, regardless of sick days, disability´Bullying by managers (pressure to meet targets)´Stress-related anxiety, depression, stress leave, physical health effects (e.g., ulcers), leaving the job´Bell denied the claims Stigma Power8Bourdieu –symbolic powerPeople achieve three basic goals by stigmatizing other people:1)Exploitation/domination (keeping people down)2)Enforcement of social norms (keeping people in line)3)Avoidance(keepingpeopleaway)Stigmatization is an exercise of power –takespowertostigmatizeEffects of stigma are a social penalty (loss of status and potential for discrimination)Mechanismfordiscrimination-Direct person-to-person discrimination-Structural discrimination-Interactional discrimination-Discrimination operating through the stigmatized person Tics and Tik Tok References1.CAMH. (n.d.) Mental Illness and Addiction: Facts and Statistics. Retrieved from: of Canada. (2020). Mental Illness in Canada. Retrieved from:, A., Fries, C. (2011). Applying the Sociological Imagination to Health, Illness, and the Body in Pursuing Health and Wellness. (1stEdition), pp. 28-56.4.Cockerham, W.C. (2021) Mental Disorders as Deviant Behaviour(11thEdition), pp. 110-133.5.Cockerham, W.C. (2021). Stigma in Sociology of Mental Disorder (11thEdition), pp. 246-259.6.Ipsos. (2019). Mental illnesses increasingly recognized as disability, but stigma persists. Retrieved from (n.d.) Addressing Stigma. Retrieved from:,B.,Phelan, J. (2014). Stigma Power. Social Science & Medicine, 103, 24-32.
It is a course of mental illness related to sociology.Please read the attached files and watch the video (link below) to understand the task properly. Its one page writing with any of the following–
CHAPTER 79 4 T his chapter provides further background on the characteristics of mental disorders by reviewing the major theoretical models explaining the causes. This literature is often interdisciplinary and provides models developed by psychiatrists, psychologists, sociol- ogists, and others. Models are abstractions organized to place facts and theories into an orderly framework for analysis and scientific verifica- tion; they provide directions for research. And for the applied disci- plines of psychiatry and clinical psychology they are invariably a basis for therapy because they have been found to obtain positive results for certain patients. While no single concept is able to provide a definitive Mental Disorder Concepts of Causes and Cures Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 80 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures explanation of all cases of insanity, several models are discussed in the litera- ture. These models are (1) medical, (2) psychoanalytic, (3) behavior modifica- tion, (4) social stress, and (5) antipsychiatric. THE MEDICAL MODEL The medical model views mental disorder as a disease or a disease-like entity that can be treated through medical means. That is, it attributes mental abnor- malities to physiological, biochemical, or genetic causes and attempts t o treat these abnormalities by way of medically grounded procedures such as psycho- pharmacology (drug therapy), electroshock therapy (EST), or psycho-surgery (brain surgery). In this particular context, a person who is mentally ill is regarded as sick in much the same manner as if that person were physically ill. The medical model holds that abnormal behavior is symptomatic of an under- lying psychic disturbance; therefore, its approach is to discover and treat the cause of that disturbance with a strategy similar to that of finding and curing a bacteriological infection. As discussed in Chapter 1 , the origins of this approach stem from the efforts of physicians during the Renaissance and post-Renaissance to comba t the notion, prevalent during the Middle Ages, that mental disorder was caused by demons, spirits, and other supernatural forces. By the end of the seventeenth century, the medical profession had generally been successful in separating the social responsibility for treating mental disorder from theology and pla cing it within the field of medicine. Physicians thus looked to the study of human anatomy for evidence that madness was caused by pathological organic pro- cesses within the body, but, with a few exceptions (e.g., syphilis of the brain), such evidence was not forthcoming. Nevertheless, by the end of the nineteenth century, the idea had become widely accepted by both the medical profession and the lay public that mental disorders were caused by mental diseases. In the twentieth century, however, it became clear that most mental disorders could not be attributed to observable anatomical abnormalities. As Robert Spitzer and Paul Wilson (1975: 826–7) observe, most psychiatric conditions do not meet the four presumed criteria for a physiological dysfunction—these are: (1) hav- ing a specific etiology or cause (such as a virus); (2) being qualitatively differ- ent from some aspect of normal functioning; (3) showing a demonstrable physical change; and (4) being internal processes that, once initiated , proceed somewhat independently of environmental conditions outside the body. Yet the medical model not only has persisted in psychiatry, it has become dominant. It guides most of the present-day search for solutions to ment al dis- order. Why? Basically there are three reasons. First, all psychiatrists are tra ined as medical doctors and are thereby socialized into adopting a medical pe rspec- tive. The medical profession, not surprisingly, regards medical training as the optimal preparation for working with mentally disturbed people. Hence, the medical model is able to maintain a pervasive influence upon the practice of psychiatry because psychiatrists are trained to view health problems as medical Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 81 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures problems and often see themselves as first a physician and then a psychiatrist (Smith 2014). Second, as Spitzer and Wilson point out, critics of the medical model often fail to realize that some physical disorders, such as essential hyperten- sion, endocrine disorders, and vitamin deficiencies, likewise do not meet all the criteria for physiological dysfunctions. But these disorders are sti ll treat- able through medical means and unquestionably fall within the purview of a medical problem. Consequently, Spitzer and Wilson argue that the appropri- ateness of the medical model cannot always be derived from the requirements of logic but should be based upon how well the model works in actual practice. Even if it works poorly, they insist that it should not be abandoned until another model is developed that can be shown to work more effectively in treating patients. Their solution is to extend the definition of mental disorder to include those conditions of human suffering and disability that respond to medical treatments. In this context, psychiatric problems are not necessarily “diseases”; instead, they are “disorders” treatable in a medical mode. This broader defini- tion thus allows the medical practitioner to assume responsibility for a greater range of problems, providing that suffering or disability is present and a medi- cal treatment is available. The danger inherent in such an approach, however, is that the definition of suitable disorders becomes too broad and extends beyond medicine’s demonstrable capacity to “cure.” Nevertheless, this situation under- lies the medicalization of social problems (Conrad 2007; Conrad and Ber gey 2014; Conrad and Slodden 2013; Smith 2014). Such a trend is indicative of the medical model’s strength. Third, there is enthusiasm among many psychiatrists concerning the effec- tiveness of psychoactive drugs in treating certain mental disorders and signifi- cantly reducing the inmate population of American mental hospitals. This outlook has intensified, as a majority of psychiatrists appear to want to “get back to medi- cine” as full-fledged partners with other medical specialists in the search for drugs as “magic bullets” to eliminate or control mental health dysfunctions. As Dena Smith (2014:79) points out, psychiatrists trained in Freudian psy choanaly- sis were skeptical of treating mental disorders with psychoactive drugs, but as the decline in their numbers continued into the twenty-first century, little opposition to the medical model is left in psychiatry. Bolstered by biochemical discoveries and advances in genetics, the cur- rent view is that psychiatry is entering a new era, possibly making it one of the most scientifically precise of all medical specialties and ending its traditional dependence upon subjective judgments of and insights into the human mind. Whether this new psychiatric era will arrive to the extent that some anticipate remains speculative at this time, but the research has been impressive enough to provoke among psychiatrists tremendous interest in psychopharmacology and recognition of the potential of genetics. While genetic research is in its infancy, it is no exaggeration to state that the community mental health move- ment would not be able to function without the drug treatments that allow Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 82 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures patients to sustain themselves outside of hospitals. Besides psychopharmacol- ogy, the remainder of this section on the medical model will briefly discus s behavioral genetics, electroshock therapy, and psychosurgery to provide an overview of those approaches based upon procedures that are strictly medical. Psychopharmacology The concept of a biochemical cause of insanity goes back to the time of the ancient Greeks and is historically derived from a belief that “poisons” gener- ated within the body are somehow able to affect the mind. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this idea was strengthened by findings demonstrating how syphilis was able to produce infection in the brain and cause manifestly bizarre behavior. Subsequent strategies to locate abnormal biochemical substances in the blood and urine of schizophrenic patients were generally unsucces sful, but there was a major breakthrough in 1952. Two French psychiatrists, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, injected chlorpromazine into their patients and soon found that it would activate withdrawn schizophrenics and bring their charac- teristically flat personal manner into a relatively normal state. Later, in large BOX 4.1 The Dominance of the Medical Model Dena Smith’s (2014) study of psychoanalysts provides insight into the perva- siveness of the medical model in psychiatry. She finds that for most psychia- trists, institutional forces outside their control structure their practice. First, pharmaceutical corporations control testing and research on psychotropic drugs and make enormous profits in the process. And through the medical model, they also influence medical training, as their drugs are linked to diag- noses. Moreover, drug companies advertise in the media directly to consumers, which promotes demand for their products from patients who seek psychiat- ric treatment (Payton and Thoits 2011). Second, Smith notes that the insurance industry is also highly influenti al since it likewise is driven by the profit motive and seeks to control its costs by the most efficient and cheapest means possible. Insurance companies rely heavily on the DSM to decide which disorders they will cover and which ones they will not, requiring psychiatrists to use its codes for reimbursement. Smith asks what makes it so likely that psychiatrists will rely on the medical model? Even the psychoanalysts in her study thought and practiced medically, despite their greater interest in “in-depth explorations of the human psyche.” She (Smith 2014:88) concludes: I contend that teaching the medicalized model of mental illness in medic al schools creates a situation in which doctors, patients, the medical industry, and insurance reinforce (both consciously or not) the medicalized notion of mental illness and prevent the emergence of viable challenges to medicalization. Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 83 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures controlled studies conducted in the United States, it was confirmed that chlor- promazine produced significant improvements in thought disorder, withdrawal, blunted affect, and autistic behavior. The focus of biochemical research dealing with behavioral abnormalities has been on the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This activity consists of signals carried via chemical agents (neurotransmitters) be tween one neuron and another. How such activity affects behavior is not entirely certain, but the assumption is that the action of the neurotransmitters is very important in mental disorder. It may be that too much or too little of these chemical sub- stances at particular receptor sites produces or fails to produce certain chemical responses that shape behavior. Neurotransmitters may work like keys in a lock; some fit correctly into receptor sites specifically designed to accept them, and others prevent insertion of the correct key. Or receptor sites may have a selective affinity for some compounds of a given type and a similar affinity for antagonis- tic compounds, which leads to the displacement of one or another substan ce. Or perhaps some other process is involved, as in the case of genetic research show- ing fewer neural connections in schizophrenics due to the hyperactivity of the C4-A protein (Sekar et al. 2016). At any rate, chlorpromazine and other drugs of the phenothiazine group are apparently able to block the action of dopam ine, a neurotransmitter whose hyperactivity is thought to be significant in the produc- tion of paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations. An excessive amount of dopamine in brain receptor sites may also be involved in mania, and a deficiency in norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter, might produce depression. Even though the biochemical mechanisms that cause the effects brought on by psychotropic drugs are not fully understood, the effects of these drugs are of sufficient clarity that they can be prescribed for certain disorders. In other words, physicians may not know exactly how they work, but they do know that in certain cases they are effective. Thus, specific psychoactive drugs can be used for specific disorders. For example, benzodiazepine compounds such as chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and diazepam (Valium), propanediols such as meprobamate (Miltown, Equanil), or perhaps barbiturates (phenobarbital) or antihistamines (hydroxyzine) all belong to the so-called minor tranqui lizer class of psychoactive drugs and are used in the treatment of anxiety. The major tranquilizers used in the treatment of schizophrenia are the phenothiazi nes such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine) or the butyrophenones such as haloperidol (Haldol). For the treatment of bipolar and depressive disorders, calling for either antidepressants or antimania drugs, tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine (Tofranil, Presamine) and amitriptyline (Elavil) are widely used. Other mood-elevating drugs are the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as tranylcypromine (Parnate). Among the antidepressant drugs is fluoxe- tine (Prozac), which has more specific biochemical effects than most other medications for depression. Prozac brightens mood and lessens anxiety an d has been a highly popular drug since the 1990s—although there are side ef fects for some patients, such as sexual problems, drowsiness, and weight gain (Cascade, Kalali, and Kennedy 2009). Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 84 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures Several studies attest to the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs in con- trolling mental disorders (Leucht et al. 2012; Schatzberg and Nemeroff 2004). There is, however, important criticism both within and outside psychiatry about overreliance on drugs for therapy. Valium, for example, although widely prescribed for anxiety, may do little more than help people sleep and can be habit forming; Thorazine, on the other hand, can control the hallucinations and agitati on in schizo- phrenics, but not apathy. Clozaril (clozapine) helps reduce apathy and improve motivation in schizophrenics and does not produce the long-term effects found in Thorazine, such as muscle stiffening and spasms. Yet Clozaril is expensive—it requires continual blood testing and monitoring of patients as it causes a blood abnormality that can be fatal in about 1 percent of all patients who take it. Reviews show, in fact, that psychotropic drugs commonly have adverse side effects, including risks for obesity, endocrine and metabolic functioning, bone density, thyroid problems, and sexual dysfunctions (Bhuvaneswar et al. 2009). Nevertheless, psychiatrists have shifted toward the increased use of drugs to treat schizophrenia, as well as anxiety and depressive disorders—with generally effective results. In regard to the effectiveness of drug therapy, it should be kept in mind that drugs do not cure mental disorder—they ameliorate symptoms. They help mental patients act in a reasonably normal manner when they would act bizarrely otherwise. The past few years have seen a large increase in new drugs introduced to treat mental disorder. These new drugs have become increasingly sophisticated owing to advances in neuroscience and molecular biology that have allowed enhanced manipulation of their chemical structures. The goal has been to create more effective drugs with fewer side effects that are specifically targeted to correct the biochemical alterations in the brain that accompany mental disorders. PHOTO 4.2 Filling a Prescription for a Psychotropic Drug at a Pharmacy Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 85 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures Behavioral Genetics Another component of the medical model is genetics. Research in the area of behavioral genetics has produced strong evidence that genetic factors are important in the transmission of certain mental disorders, notably schiz o- phrenia, bipolar, and depressive disorders, from parent to child (Craddock, O’Donovan, and Owen 2012; Landecker and Panofsky 2013; Schwartz and Corcoran 2010; Sekar et al. 2016). This would explain why certain people are prone, for example, to schizophrenia and why schizophrenia tends to be preva- lent in certain families and not in others (Schwartz and Corcoran 2010). In the late nineteenth century, almost as soon as schizophrenia was defined as a spe- cific type of mental disorder, it was noticed that it “ran in families.” Under the scientific standards of the time, this was taken as “proof” that schizophrenia was inherited or at least involved genetics. Indeed, a number of family studies conducted since the early decades of the twentieth century supported this assumption by showing that the closer an individual’s genetic relationship was to a known schizophrenic, the greater his or her chance of developing the disorder (Craddock, O’Donovan, and Owens 2012; Landecker and Panofsky 2013). Among identical (monozygotic) twins, if one twin is schizophrenic, the other twin has about a 50 percent chan ce of likewise becoming (or being) schizophrenic. Fraternal (dizygotic) twins, ordi- nary siblings, and parents show a lower degree of genetic affinity (concor- dance) for schizophrenia, nieces and nephews still lower, and so on. The lowest degree of concordance is, of course, for people who are unrelated. The child of two severely affected schizophrenics would have a 50 percent or greater chance of developing the disorder, but the risk would drop to 25 percent for the child of two mildly schizophrenic parents. If one parent is schizophrenic and the other is not, the chances of avoiding schizophrenia altogether are the same as for the general population. Then, of course, there is the genetic research previously discussed in Chapter 2 of Aswin Sekar et al. (2016) on the adverse effects of the C4-A protein in reducing (“pruning”) the number of neurotransmitters in the p refrontal lobe of schizophrenics that likely affect perception and the recognition of reality. This finding provides a target for developing intervention drugs and a basis for the construction of a genetic profile of schizophrenics, providing the findings can lead to further research and more answers. As for depressive disorders, the concordance for monozygotic twins is even higher—around 70 percent; so if one twin has a depressive disorder, there are seven chances in ten that the other twin will suffer similarly. This is the highest concordance rate for any mental disorder. For first-degree relatives such as dizygotic twins, siblings, and so forth, the concordance rate drops s ignifi- cantly to about 15 percent and continues to decline accordingly. The exact genetic factors involved in mental disorder are not known at present; some hypotheses favor the notion that abnormal behavior is related to a single domi- nant gene, and another view is that several predisposing genes are implicated. Cockerham, William C.. Sociology of Mental Disorder, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, Created from umanitoba on 2022-09-06 18:44:05. Copyright © 2016. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. 86 Chapter 4 • Concepts of Causes and Cures What apparently is not in dispute is that the mechanism of transmission is biochemical. What passes from parents to offspring are probably compounds (nucleic acid sequences) that control the biosynthesis of other compou nds (pro- teins); consequently, inherited abnormalities of either physiology or behavior imply an abnormality in the body’s protein complement. Another unanswered question pertains to the relative contributions of heredity and the social environment. There is growing evidence that genetic influences on mental disorder can be modified by the environment, but the exact extent to which this is the case is still being determined (Landecker and Panofsky 2013; Pescosolido et al. 2009; Schwartz and Corcoran 2010; Toyokawa et al. 2012). According to Ronald Simons and his colleagues (2011), some individu-

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