I am doing a discussion board reply. I need to reply to two discussion post. Each reply must be at least 250 words.


Discussion 1

The Old Testament: In the first century, the Old Testament was in three languages for the Jews.  The original Hebrew, the Septuagint (Greek) and the Targums (paraphrases in Aramaic), it also contained interpretive, imaginative material not in the Old Testament.

The Apocrypha: Dating from the Intertestamental period to the New Testament. The Apocrypha books are written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, the word apocrypha means (hidden secret). It contains history, fiction and wisdom, these books are not Scripture. They also have many proven errors and contradictions, which are historical and theological.

Pseudepigrapha some of them were falsely inscribed and written in falsely assumed names of deceased Old Testament figures, to achieve authority. Pseudepigrapha Literatures contain books of well-known history and wisdom; the books attempt to imitate Scripture.

Apocalyptic literature claims to reveal it is highly symbolic and visionary language, of the true course of human history, and the come of God’s kingdom on earth.

Dead Sea Scrolls; eight hundred scrolls discovered in caves near the ruins of Qumran. The Dead Sea Scrolls are literature, manuscripts of every book in the Hebrew Bible. They contained various commentaries of the Old Testament books, and various books of laws, prayers, liturgies, blessing and wisdom.

The Talmud; Is the Rabbis interpretation of the Old Testament Laws, It also is expanding the Oral Law

The Jews obeyed The Old Testament (the Torah) they also refer to the Laws of Moses. The problem was the Pharisees were to legalistic with the Law, which they themselves could not keep. The Pharisees use the Old Testament Laws as a means of power; a tool of authority over their people.

Pseudepigrapha and the Apocrypha are Jewish literature; they provide essential evidence of though and work as early as the Intertestamental period. Although these books are Jews literature, they are false writing with will know authors of the Bible names. These books will confuse people; especially those who are easy lead a stray. These writings are complete heresy; they are not the inspired Word of God.

Apocalyptic literature is in the book of Revelation, because it is God revealing the end times to John.

The Jewish Literatures that are not the inspired word of God is heresy. The culture during Jesus ministry confused and lost; the people were oppressed by their Roman overseers. Many of the people in this culture were economically many less middle class, and were in need.

Discussion 2


There were different types of literature that influenced Judaism in the first century. Those forms included the following: The Old Testament, Apocrypha books, pseudepigrapha books, apocalyptic books, the Dead Sea scrolls, and Talmud. Each one had and has its own effect on helping Christians. These books have shaped the world both past and present world. While God’s chosen people may have been exposed to multiple “religions” and cultures the true faith was preserved and protected by those who remained faithful to Yahweh.

The Old Testament existed in Hebrew (the original), Septuagint (Greek translation), and Targums (oral paraphrases into Aramaic) in the first century. [1] Having the Old Testament accessible in more than one language allowed for more people to have the chance to know Yahweh. Secondly, the Apocrypha books, which were also available in Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic that dated from the intertestamental period and New Testament. These books gave a glimpse into the not so distant past and mainly included history, fiction, and wisdom. However they were not held as sacred and became known as “noncanonical.” 1 and 2 Maccabees are counted among the Apocrypha books. [2]  The Pseudepigrapha books such as 1 and 2 Enoch also date from the intertestamental period to the New Testament and have gotten the name because “some of them were written under the falsely assumed names of long deceased Old Testament figures to achieve an air of authority. Also some of the pseudepigrapha count as apocalyptic literature because they claim to reveal in a highly symbolic and visionary language.” [3] Now the eight hundred scrolls that compile into the Dead Sea scrolls are comparable to pseudepigrapha literature along with commentaries, law books, liturgies, prayers, blessings, and astronomical and calendrical calculations. [4] Finally Talmud, the tradition of passing down the laws orally from one generation to the next became more popular in the years to come. “Rabbinic case decisions about interpretive questions stemming from the Old Testament law formed a memorized oral tradition in the New Testament. Talmud traditions grew in the following centuries until the Jewish Talmud enshrined it in writing.” [5] The Talmud basically explains the law and how it should be carried out in the daily lies of believers and to what extent.

These forms of literature are important in helping modern Christians understand the culture and time of Christ. They give insight into what was happening during the time of Christ and how the first Christians lived along with how they worshiped and what they believed during a time before our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. A history is provided and well documented. Christianity was not founded on or based off of existing false religions but upon an actual documented history of a nation of people whom have been specially chosen by God to reveal Himself to the world for the betterment of the world. “Jewish beliefs sprang from the acts of God in history as recorded and interpreted in a collection of sacred books (the Old Testament), not as in paganism from mythology, mysticism, or philosophic speculation…” [6]

[1] Gundry, Robert H., A Survey of the New Testament, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 80.

[2] Ibid. 83.

[3] Ibid. 82.

[4] Ibid. 83.

[5] Ibid. 84.

[6] Ibid. 85.


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