There are two parts to the exam—an essay section and a multiple-choice section. You have a choice of essay questions to answer, but you must answer all the multiple-choice questions for full credit. The midterm exam is based on Chapters 1 through 8.

You must answer a total of five essay questions. Please choose four of the first five essay questions and answer them; then answer question 6. Please number and write the questions you choose to answer in a single Word document. Each of your first four answers should be approximately half page in length (about 15-20 lines of text). Your answer to question 6 should be 1 to 2 pages long. You may refer to your textbook for information, but your answers must be in your own words, not copied or copied and pasted from your textbook or other sources.

When you have completed the essays, please load the Word document into the dropbox and submit it to the instructor.

Essay QuestionsThe formation of the Hawaiian Islands is discussed on page 76 of your textbook. Using concepts you have learned thus far in the course, suggest possible reasons why the Big Island of Hawaii (the Southeastern-most Island of the island chain) is the largest island of the entire chain. For additional information on Loihi, the newest volcano in the chain, visit the Web site for the Hawaii Center for Volcanology.Why are abyssal plains much more common in the Atlantic than in the Pacific? You’ll find the information on pages 91-94 of the textbook helpful in formulating your answer.The textbook shows illustrations of the Wilson Cycle.Garrison, T. (2015). Essentials of Oceanography (7th ed.). p. 78. Brooks/Cole Publishing.Examine these illustrations and describe the formation of a new ocean in detail, giving examples from around the world, especially from East Africa. Also describe the process for the closure of a fully developed ocean.The Gulf Stream is famous for producing turbulent rings, or eddies. Explain how the rings form, and briefly highlight differences between warm and cold core rings. For assistance, please see the textbook, page 178, or visit:
Coastal Carolina University.  (n.d.).  Formation of gulf stream rings . Gulf Stream Tutorials. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).  (n.d.) . Chapter 7: Gulf stream rings . Classic  CZCS Scenes: Gulf Stream Rings. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

Explain why anticyclones rotate clockwise and cyclones rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and why the opposite is true for the Southern Hemisphere. Please consult your textbook, pages 162-167. Be sure to mention the Coriolis Effect in your answer.

Everyone must answer Question 6.Unknown before 1977, hydrothermal vents, also known as black smokers, represent a unique environment on our planet. Take a stance of either supporting future exploration and research or calling for protection of this ecosystem. Consider if the mineral wealth associated with black smokersshould be exploited, or whether such a unique ecological environment should be conserved? Think about the future in terms of building an argument to environmentally protect black smoker ecosystems or allow for exploration, research, possible mining, a potential food source, and tourism. Your answer should be 1–2 pages long. Please cite all sources according to APA format.

Compose your work using a word processor (or other software as appropriate) and save it frequently to your computer. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you upload it. When you are ready to submit your work, click “Browse My Computer” and find your file. Once you have located your file, click “Open” and, if successful, the file name will appear under the Attached files heading. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click “Submit.”

Reference:Rubin, K. (n.d.). Hawaii Center for Volcanology. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST). Retrieved from, T. (2015). Essentials of Oceanography (7th ed.). p. 78. Farmington, MI: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Coastal Carolina University. (n.d.). Formation of gulf stream rings. Gulf Stream Tutorials. Retrieved from Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (n.d.). Chapter 7: Gulf stream rings. Classic CZCS Scenes: Gulf Stream Rings. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Retrieved from

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